This article analyses the diagnostic techniques recommended by Ayurveda. The notion of diagnosis is unique to Ayurveda, just as disease and therapies are. By examining the patient's physical, physiological, psychological, and behavioral elements, one reaches the Nidana of Doshi imbalance. The article provides insight into the many diagnostic techniques described in the Sastras, which are forerunners to all contemporary diagnostic techniques.
There are 5 different Ayurveda diagnoses
The Pancha nidana, or five categories of diagnostic instruments, are used by Ayurveda to identify disease. The five factors are also the cause (nidana), early warning indicators (purva rupa), signs (rupa), investigative techniques (upashaya), and illness progress (samprapti). In situations where a single causal factor (nidana) may cause a variety of ailments, the pancha nidana helps to narrow down a diagnosis. For instance, the vata imbalance might lead to 80 various ailments. Knowing only the disease's cause—in this example, the aggravated vata dosha—is generally insufficient. Finding more about the dosha type, bodily channels (srotas), tissues (dhatus), and systems that are engaged in the pathophysiology of each of the different forms of vata is crucial in order to understand the ailment under discussion. If the other impacted elements have been neglected, simply using a "anti vata" treatment may not completely remove all vata-related diseases. There are five primary categories of Ayurvedic diagnostic techniques: Purvarupa (prodromal symptoms), Rupa (manifested symptoms), Samprapti (pathogenesis), Upasaya (therapeutic testing), and Ashtavidha Pareeksha (physical examination).
1. Purvarupa - (prodromal symptoms) (prodromal symptoms) is a reference to a disease's early warning indications, which eventually lead to sufferers experiencing the full range of the illness's symptoms.
2. Rupa - (manifested symptoms) (manifested symptoms) is the collection of issues and conditions that the patient puts to the vaidyan's attention. The vaidyan then employs touch & percussion to assess the patient's health.
3. Samprapti - (pathogenesis) (pathogenesis) traces the patient's beginning of symptoms back to the Nidana stage, which is the personal and patient's family's medical history. Here, the patient's age, general physical and mental health, and metabolic status are all important factors in the diagnosis.
4. Upasaya - (therapeutic testing) (therapeutic tests) are the herbal treatments and lifestyle advice that combat the disease and prevent its spread.
5. Ashley Pareeksha - (physical examination) is the unique stage where a careful inspection occurs. The doctor examines the patient's Nadi (heartbeat), Jihva (tongue), Sabda (voice), Sparsa (touch), Drik (eyes), Akruti (appearance), Mutra (urine), and Mala (faeces).
Factors Affecting Disease Diagnosis
Making decisions on a diagnosis in Ayurveda is extremely difficult and is reliant on the evaluation of numerous internal elements that emerge during a disease, such as:
• body hilarity (Tridoshas)
• body parts (dhatus)
• Excretory items (malas)
• digestive capacity (agni)
• Body pathways (srotas).
The manifestation of the condition is also influenced by external elements such as pathogens or infections, seasons or weather, and the patient's lifestyle, including nutrition, medications, smoking or drinking, and other similar practices that contribute to vitiating his or her constitution.
Ayurvedic methods of diagnosis
Three diagnostic techniques are used in an Ayurvedic clinical assessment (trividhapariksha):
• Inspection (Darshana) - involves observing the physical features of the body, such as the skin, hair, eyes, & tongue.
• Palpation (Sparsana) - includes feeling the pulse and parts of the body (wrist pulse, abdominal palpation etc.).
• Inquiry (Prasna) - During the questioning stage, it is discussed how to understand the patient's medical history, symptoms, and emotional and physical health.
This diagnostic is used to guide the selection of herbs and compound formulas for treatment.
Ayurveda uses pancha nidana, or five kinds of diagnostic tools, to pinpoint disease. They are the illness's progress, the causes (nidana), early warning indications (purva rupa), signs (rupa), and investigation methods (upashaya) (samprapti). The article sheds light on the several diagnostic methods that the Sastras, which were the forerunners of modern diagnostic methods, detailed.